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Driving pin holes of HSS circular saw blades for metal cutting

Product standard produced pinholes in pdf (size 500kb)

Why should you choose a CIRCULAR SAW?

Fewer burrs - Better cut finishes - Lower cost per cut - Higher cutting precision -available in a range of coatings  - THE TOOL CAN BE REGROUND MANY TIMES

Helpful Hints For Saw Users

appropriate safety equipment.

  • Always wear safety goggles and other
  • Always use the correct saw for each application.
  • Keep saws sharpened. A dull saw will not cut clean... and may break the saw.
  • Support saw blade by using maximum diameter side collars.
  • Side collars should be free of any dirt or foreign material when assembling.
  • Always be certain arbor nut is tightened correctly.
  • Larger arbor holes provide more rigidity and least amount of deflection.
  • Use proper speeds and feeds for material being machined.
  • Workpiece being cut must be rigidly held and positioned correctly.
  • Resharpen saws regularly to obtain consistent chip removal and uniform cutting results.
  • Never stop the saw and restart during the course of a cut.

STEEL QUALITIES

DMo5 - DIN 1.3343 - JIS SKH51 - M2  High speed TUNGSTEN MOLYBDENUM STEEL. It is strongly alloyed high speed steel containing wolfram, vanadium and molybdenum. Circular saws have both very good mechanical characteristics and excelent strength for these alloying elements. Fine structure of martensite, its formation is ensured by 5% molybdenum content, makes the blades resistant from disruption and fatigue of material. Wolfram content not only forms extremely hard carbides and improves blade strength, but above all keeps material grain growth off. Moreover increases the resistant to attritions, especially during big cutting temperatures. Analogous to above mentioned elements vanadium takes part in improvement of mechanichal characteristics as well. It makes fine grains, participates in rise of hard carbides and increases the instrument resistant to attritions. For high performance saw blades. Hardened and tempered to 64 +/- 1

EMo5Co5 - DIN 1.3243 - J1S SKH55 - M35 TUNGSTEN MOLYBDENUM COBALT bearing steel. It is strongly alloyed high speed steel with content of wolfram, molybdenum and cobalt. From the HSS/Dmo5 steel mentioned above differs by 5% cobalt content which keeps material grain growth off during high cutting temperatures and improves cutting operation. These characteristics are prerequisite for efficient cutting of hard materials as are stainless steels or steel of big strength. Special high performance saw blades. Hardened and tempered to 65 +/- 1

 

Teeth number + Toof form we recommend for cutting profiles and pipes

Teeth number + Toof form we recommend for cutting profiles and pipes

Profiles

Teeth number + Toof form we recommend for cutting solid material

Teeth number + Toof form we recommend for cutting solid material

Solid material

 

Cutting Speed for Solid Carbide Saw Blades

Materials Cooling liquids Cutting speed
Vc = m/min
Feed per tooth
fz = mm/Z
Steel up to 500 N/mm² Emulsion 1:20 100 - 80 0,010 - 0,030
Steel up to 800 N/mm² Emulsion 1:15 50 - 90 0,007 - 0,025
Steel up to 1300 N/mm² Emulsion 1:12 30 - 50 0,005 - 0,020
Stainless steels Emulsion 1:10 30 - 70 0,005 - 0,015
Alloyed tool steels Emulsion 1:10 15 - 40 0,005 - 0,012
Titanium alloys Cutting oil 35 - 55 0,003 - 0,008
Cast irons Dry cutting 30 - 90 0,005 - 0,010
Copper Emulsion or spray cooling 200 - 500 0,020 - 0,040
Brass Emulsion or spray cooling 300 - 500 0,010 - 0,040
Aluminium Emulsion or spray cooling 400 - 2000 0,010 - 0,040

The data recommended in this table are intended only as a guide.

 

Physical Vapour Deposition COATINGS  PVD

SURFACE TREATMENT VAPO

SURFACE TREATMENT VAPOVAPO is a controlled oxidation process produces a layer of iron oxide (Fe3O4) on the surface of a saw blade. It is a surface modification by CO2 oxidation when made circular saws are once more let to tempering in overheated steam in cca 550°C. Thus is created extremely fine surface layer with hardness 900 HV. Because of stress release circular saws improved by this modification get a better elasticity which avoid their possible break. Microporosity arised on surface enables better coolant water distribution. This increases its self-lubricating capability and greatly improves its resistance to pick-up. Slipslide is a very low cost surface treatment suitable for most general cutting work. But exception is cutting of alumunium, copper, brass and their alloys. Technical characteristics: Surface Hardness: 900 HV; Coefficient of friction : 0.65;

TiN Titanium Nitride (GOLDSKIN)

TiN Titanium Nitride (GOLDSKIN)Circular saws coated by TiN (titanium-nitride) reach very high surface microhardness which enables their using for separation of material of high mechanical tenacity. It is very suitable for cutting medium-alloyed and hard steel. The coat characteristics enable to heighten circumferential speed and feed rate nearly by 50 % and it very shortens the time of working cycles. This coating with a titanium base 3 microns thick obtained at a process temperature of approximately 490°C. It guarantees a friction coefficient of 0,47 and an oxidation temperature of 640°C. The hardness of the coated layer reaches 2.480 Vickers (HV 0,05). Its low thermal conductivity provides a reliable heat shield for the sublayer. It is a coating suitable for cutting low alloy steel and must always be used with plenty of lubrication. It is not suitable for cutting copper, brass or bronze.

TiAIN Titanium Aluminium Nitride (BLACKSKIN)

TiAIN Titanium Aluminium Nitride (BLACKSKIN)This coating is suitable for separation of materials of high strenght in traction, stainless steels and material with resistant to attritions, as are cast iron and brass. Its excellent characteristic is resistance in high work temperatures that is why it is suitable for use in dry cuts or in cuts with insufficient cooling. Moreover, it is very suitable for high circumferential speed. This multilayer coating is 3 microns thick. The plasma is obtained from the fusion of a titanium/aluminium cathode. The addition of an inert gas during the process and the energy with which the molecules are loaded allow the surface to be bombarded, thereby obtaining excellent coating properties that guarantee high thermal resistance to the sublayer; it has an oxidation temperature of 800°C resulting in a surface hardness of 3.400 Vickers (HV 0,05). The friction coefficient is 0,45 and allows circular saws to be used with excellent results even in conditions of limited or minimal lubrication and misting. It is particularly suited to high alloy steels of up to 1100 N/mm2, cutting cast iron, stainless steel and all materials that develop considerable heat.

TiCN Titanium Carbo Nitride (SPEEDSKIN)

TiCN Titanium Carbo Nitride (SPEEDSKIN)PVD coating with very low coefficient friction on steel. It enables to reach very clear cuts and avoid cool surfacing even in high circumferential cutting speed and shifts in such materials as are very hard steels, copper and brass, its cutting often create cool surfacing. It enables to heighten circumferential speed and feed speed nearly by 100 % in face of parameters for blank circular saws

CRN Chrome Nitride (GRAYSKIN)

Very low friction coefficient makes circular saw baldes with GRAYSKIN coating very suitable for cutting materials which have strong tendency for being stuck on tool sides, it means brass, copper and alluminium alloys. The possibility of coating tools in stronger layers from 2,5 microns thick up to the thickness 7"m is its next advantage. It is made by means of a plasma of titanium and carbon that increases the hardness to 3.000 Vickers (HV 0,05). The friction coefficient 0,22 is very low due to the high carbon content. This makes it very suitable for cutting highly abrasive materials such as stainless steel and medium alloyed steels with a hardness of up to 800 N/mm2. The low friction coefficient considerably reduces chipping at the cutting edge and the disc sidewall. This coating has an oxidation temperature of 400°C and should always be used with plenty of lubrication during the cutting process.

Tooth shape and geometry cutting saw blades

Tooth shape and geometry cutting saw blades

Circular saws GSP come standard with the following geometries, suitable for cutting steel and its alloys.

Tooth shape A Tooth shape B Tooth shape AW
Tooth shape A
is normally used on fine toothing (< T3) for applications such as brass alloy cutting, jewellery and screw slotting.
Tooth shape B
is normally used for thin-walled pipes and the cutting of structural shapes, especially where chip removal is not an issue.
Tooth shape AW ,
unlike type A, is alternately bevelled, thus optimizing chip shredding. It is particularly suitable for precision cutting.

 

Tooth shape BW Tooth shape C Tooth shape BR Tooth shape VP
Tooth shape BW
is primarily used for cutting pipes and sections. The tooth is alternately bevelled at 45?, breaks the chip in two and guarantees good chip evacuation.
Tooth shape C
is used for solid sections or very thick pipes. The chip is shredded into three parts due to the presence of both a finishing tooth without chamfer and a pre-cutting tooth (longer than 0.25 mm) with two chamfers on each side.
Tooth shape BR
has been successfully introduced for cutting pipes. It has double the number of cutting edges and guarantees a higher number of cuts and a better finish to the section. It also improves tool durability by about 20% because it reduces the removed section per each single sharpening.
Tooth shape VP
variable pitch, is used to cut very irregular sections which cause severe vibration and noise. It guarantees softer contact and offers a good compromise between cut duration and reduced vibration.

 

CUTTING SPEED AND FEED RATE

In order to find the correct working parameters for each single application, the user normally has to carry out numerous careful comparative checks. The factors to be considered (material, machine, tool etc) directly determine the result. Our engineers, attentive to our customers? requirements, have created very sophisticated software which analyzes all this data simultaneously and allows us to considerably reduce the optimization time during the various applications. Our engineers can recommend the best cutting parameters for each single application. The following formula and graphs indicate how to calculate the cutting speed, number of revolutions and feed rate.

CUTTING SPEED AND FEED RATE

V = Cutting speed (mt/1?)
D1 = Saw blade diameter (mm)
Av = Feed rate (mm/1?)
Avz = Feed rate per tooth (mm/Z)
Z = Number of teeth
Rpm = Number of revolutions/minute

Formula:
Rpm V x 1000
-------------------
D1 x 3,14

Av = Avz x Z x rpm

CHOICE OF PITCH AND FEED RATE

Once the material and the section to be cut have been identified, the pitch must be chosen. The correct pitch will prevent dangerous vibration and guarantee correct chip evacuation. The following data are approximate. Our engineers can advise on the most appropriate pitch for each specific application (stationary cut, flying cut, transfer) and the materials to be cut.

Material V (mt/1?) AVZ (mm/Z)
Steel < 500 N/mm (C10, C15, St37, St44) 30-40 0,04-0,08
Steel < 800 N/mm (C40, C60, 15Cr3, 16MnCr5, 26CrMo4) 25-35 0,03-0,07
Steel < 1200 N/mm (38NCD4, 14NiCr14, 40CrMnMo7) 15-25 0,02-0,06
Stainless steel 15-25 0,02-0,06
Cast iron 20-30 0,03-0,05
Titanium 12-15 0,02-0,05
Brass 400-600 0,05-0,07
Copper 200-400 0,05-0,07
Bronze 200-400 0,05-0,07
Aluminium 500-700 0,06-0,08

PIPES AND STRUCTURAL SHAPES

d d T s T
≤ 20 mm ≤ 1,0 mm 3 > 1 mm 4
≤ 30 mm ≤ 1,5 mm 5 > 1,5 mm 5,5
≤ 40 mm ≤ 2,0 mm 6 > 2 mm 7
≤ 50 mm ≤ 4,0 mm 6 > 4 mm 7
≤ 60 mm ≤ 4,0 mm 7 > 4 mm 8
≤ 70 mm ≤ 3,0 mm 7 > 3 mm 8
≤ 80 mm ≤ 4,0 mm 8 > 4 mm 10
≤ 90 mm ≤ 4,0 mm 8 > 4 mm 10
≤ 100 mm ≤ 7,0 mm 10 > 7 mm 12
≤ 120 mm ≤ 5,0 mm 10 > 5 mm 12
≤ 140 mm ≤ 4,0 mm 10 > 4 mm 12

 

 

 

Avz < 0,08 mm/Z Avz > 0,08 mm/Z
≤ 20 mm 5,5  
≤ 30 mm 7  
≤ 40 mm 8  
≤ 50 mm 9  
≤ 60 mm 10 12
≤ 70 mm 11 12
≤ 80 mm 12 14
≤ 90 mm 12 14
≤ 100 mm 14 16
≤ 120 mm 14 16
≤ 140 mm 16 18

RECOMMENDED WORKING PARAMETERS

In the following charts we have highlighted the working parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) which our engineers recommend when cutting solid materials or pipes.

  STEEL ≤ 500 N/mm2 INOX STEEL ≤ 800 N/mm2 INOX STEEL ≤ 1200 N/mm2 INOX
D1 350 x 2,5
v = 75 m/min. v = 50 m/min. v = 35 m/min. v = 25 m/min. v = 18 m/min. v = 12 m/min.
Avz = 0,06 mm/Z Avz = 0,06 mm/Z Avz = 0,06 mm/Z
T Z Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min
3 350 1428 - 670   290 190
4 280 1140 765 535 380 230 150
5 220 600 600 420 300 180 120
6 180 735 490 345 245 147 98
7 160 650 435 305 220 130 87
8 140 570 380 265 190 115 75
9 120 490 330 230 165 100 65
10 110 450 330 210 150 90 60
12 90 365 245 170 120 74 50
14 80 325 220 150 110 66 45
16 70 285 190   95 57 38
18 60 - 165   80 50 33

 

  BRASS BRONZE / COOPER ALUMINIUM
D1 350 x 2,5
v = 600 m/min. v = 400 m/min. v = 400 m/min. v = 200 m/min. v = 800 m/min. v = 500 m/min.
Avz = 0,06 mm/Z Avz = 0,06 mm/Z Avz = 0,06 mm/Z
T Z Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min Av = mm/min
3 350 9100   6000   13300  
4 280 7300   4800   10600  
5 220 6100 4000 4000 2000 8350 5940
6 180 4800 3200 3200 1600 6840 4860
7 160 4200 2800 2800 1400 6080 4320
8 140 3600 2400 2400 1200 5320 3780
9 120 3300 2200 2200 1100 4560 3240
10 110 3000 2000 2000 1000 4180 2970
12 90 2400 1600 1600 800 3420 2430
14 80 1400   700     2160
16 70 1200   600     1890
18 60 1100   550     1620

 

The cutting speed (Vt) is expressed in revolutions per minute and represents the speed of the tooth against the piece being cut; cutting speed does not directly influence cutting time.
Cutting speed (rpm) is expressed in revolutions per minute and represents the disc rotating speed around its own axis; it can be determined by a rev counter, or obtained with the following formula.
The feed rate (Av) is expressed in millimetres per minute and represents the feeding speed of the saw while it breaks into the piece being cut. This figure is directly proportional to the cutting time: the higher the feed rate, the lower the contact time.

MM/INCHES CONVERSION

MM INCHES MM INCHES MM INCHES MM INCHES
.1 .0039 20 .7872 48 1.8898 76 2.9921
.2 .0079 21 .8268 49 1.9291 77 3.0315
.3 .0118 22 .8661 50 1.9685 78 3.0709
.4 .0157 23 .9055 51 2.0079 79 3.1102
.5 .0197 24 .9449 52 2.0472 80 3.1496
.6 .0236 25 .9843 53 2.0866 81 3.1890
.7 .0276 26 1.0236 54 2.1260 82 3.2284
.8 .0315 27 1.0630 55 2.1654 83 3.2677
.9 .0354 28 1.1024 56 2.2047 84 3.3071
1 .0394 29 1.1417 57 2.2441 85 3.3465
2 .0787 30 1.1811 58 2.2835 86 3.3858
3 .1181 31 1.2205 59 2.3228 87 3.4252
4 .1575 32 1.2598 60 2.3622 88 3.4646
5 .1969 33 1.2992 61 2.4016 89 3.5039
6 .2362 34 1.3386 62 2.4410 90 3.5433
7 .2756 35 1.3780 63 2.4803 91 3.5827
8 .3150 36 1.4173 64 2.5197 92 3.6221
9 .3543 37 1.4567 65 2.5591 93 3.6614
10 .3937 38 1.4961 66 2.5984 94 3.7008
11 .4331 39 1.5354 67 2.6378 95 3.7402
12 .4724 40 1.5748 68 2.6772 96 3.7795
13 .5118 41 1.6142 69 2.7165 97 3.8189
14 .5512 42 1.6535 70 2.7559 98 3.8583
15 .5906 43 1.6929 71 2.7953 99 3.8976
16 .6299 44 1.7323 72 2.8347 100 3.9370
17 .6693 45 1.7717 73 2.8740    
18 .7087 46 1.8110 74 2.9134    
19 .7480 47 1.8504 75 2.9528    

STANDARD KEYWAY FOR SAWS

SAW BORE A INCHES NOMINAL SIZE (SQUARE) INCHES WIDTH (C) DEPTH PLUS DIAMETER (D) NOMINAL DEPTH (H) CORN RADIUS
MAXIMUM MINIMUM MAXIMUM MINIMUM
1/2" 3/32" .106" .099" .5678" .5578" 3/64" .020"
5/8 1/8 .137 .130 .7085 .6985 1/16 1/32
3/4 1/8 .137 .130 .8325 .8225 1/16 1/32
7/8 1/8 .137 .130 .9575 .9475 1/16 1/32
1 1/4 .262 .255 1.1140 1.1040 3/32 3/64
1 1/4 5/16 .325 .318 1.3950 1.3850 1/8 1/16
1 1/2 3/8 .410 .385 1.6760 1.6660 5/32 1/16
1 3/4 7/16 .473 .448 1.9580 1.9480 3/16 1/16
2 1/2 .535 .510 2.2080 2.1980 3/16 1/16
2 1/2 5/8 .660 .635 2.7430 2.7330 7/32 1/16
3 3/4 .785 .760 3.2750 3.2650 1/4 3/32
3 1/2 7/8 .910 .885 3.9000 3.8900 3/8 3/32
4 1 1.035 1.011 4.4000 4.3900 3/8 3/32
4 1/2 1 1/8 1.160 1.135 4.9630 4.9530 7/16 1/8
5 1 1/4 1.285 1.260 5.5250 5.5150 1/2 1/8
  • intermediate size bore use keyway for next larger size bore listed.
  • saws not having keyway listed in table are special.

SPECIAL BLADES

Materials

high speed steels normally available are M-2, M-42, D- 2, T-15 and 440C stainless. In addition, other specialty steels may be quoted upon request.

Diameters

any diameter saw blade or circular product between the range of 1/2" to 10" within manufacturing capabilities. Metric sizes also available within these ranges.

Thickness

thicknesses as low as .003 in certain styles. Dimensional tolerances as close as + or - .0001 depending on outside diameter and thickness.

Tooth Pitches

state-of-the-art grinding machines provide us with the capability of supplying blades between 50 and 2.2 TPI (teeth per inch) with a ground tooth form. Blades with pitches coarser than 2.2 TPI can be supplied with a milled tooth form.

Tooth Styles

tooth styles are listed below for your convenience. Please check to confirm that we can manufacture desired tooth style with the type of circular product requested.

Special Saw Blade Quotation and Ordering Instructions

when requesting quotations or ordering special saw blades, please provide the following information:

  • a. number of pieces
  • b. saw diameter
  • c. saw width
  • d. arbor hole diameter
  • e. keyway dimension
  • f. number of teeth
  • g. special tooth design*

* Blades will be furnished with a standard tooth design unless otherwise specified. GSP- High Tech Saws, s.r.o. supplies on a regular basis high speed steel blanks for manufacturers who opt to put in their own teeth. GSP- High Tech Saws, s.r.o. welcomes other saw manufacturers? requests for any products we manufacture.

Material Steel up to 500 N/mm2 Steel up to 800 N/mm2 Steel up to 1200 N/mm2 Stainless steels Cast Irons Light metals Copper and Bronze Brass
Solid material diameter (mm) Tooth pitch T (mm)
10 - 20 8 6 5 5 5 8 6 8
20 - 40 10 8 6 6 6 10 8 10
40 - 60 12 10 8 8 8 12 10 12
60 - 90 15 13 10 11 11 16 13 14
90 - 110 18 16 12 14 14 18 16 18
130 - 150 25 20 16 18 18 25 20 22
Pipes and profiles Wall thickness (mm) Tooth pitch T (mm)
< 1 3 3 3 3 - 4 4 4
1 - 1,5 4 4 3 4 - 5 5 5
1,5 - 2 5 4 4 5 - 6 6 6
2 - 3 6 5 5 5 - 7 7 7
> 7 7 6 5 6 - 8 8 8

 

Table recommended cutting material

Cutting data Recommended number of teeth
Material Speed m/min Good Bad
Steel <700 N/mm2 80 - 160 tables recommended cutting material
Steel >700 N/mm2 50 - 120
Stainlesss teel 50 – 100
Titrnium 30 - 70
Aluminium 80 - 300
Copper 70 - 200
Brass 100 - 300
Gold 80 - 250

Ideally 2 – 3 teeth in contact

Too many teeth:

  • feed too low per tooth
  • not enought place for the chips

Not enought teeth:

  • Risc of vibrations
  • Risc of early wear out
Recommended velocity (round per minute)
  Stainless steel Cast iron or Steel over 1000 N/mm2 Steel 550-800 N/mm2 Ebonite, Welded pipes or Steel 450-500 N/mm2 Non welded pipes Cooper Messing Aluminium

Diameter of saw blade

rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm rpm
20 mm 318 637 796 955 1114 2387 3183 6366
25 mm 255 509 637 764 891 1910 2546 5096
32 mm 199 398 497 597 696 1492 1989 3979
40 mm 159 318 398 477 557 1194 1592 3183
50 mm 127 255 318 382 446 955 1273 2546
63 mm 101 202 253 303 354 758 1011 2021
80 mm 80 159 199 239 279 597 796 1592
100 mm 64 127 159 191 223 477 637 1273
125 mm 51 102 127 153 178 382 509 1019
160 mm 40 80 99 119 139 298 398 796
200 mm 32 64 80 95 111 239 318 637
250 mm 25 51 64 76 89 191 255 509
315 mm 20 40 51 61 71 152 202 404

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